Teacher Notes

Bible Stories for Adults

The Lord's Supper

Matthew 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-26; Luke 22:7-20

Welcome and Announcements
    Next Week - The Trials of Jesus (John 3:1-21)
    Bible Words to Remember:
      For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until He comes. 1 Corinthians 11:26

Opening Prayer

Jesus' Last Week = Summarize on board
    Why did Jesus wait until the last minute before going to Jerusalem for His last Passover?
      John 11:53-57 = There was a warrant out for His arrest
    When did He finally show up in the Jerusalem metropolitan area? = Bethany was a suburb
      John 12:1-2 = Six days before the Passover, on Friday - Visited friends M, M & L
      Note: Jews had to stay within Jerusalem during the festival, suburb villages counted
    What did Jesus do the next day?
      Leviticus 23:3 = It was the Sabbath, He rested - No mention in any Gospel

    What happened Sunday? = Last week's lesson
      Mark 11:7-10 = Palm Sunday, The Triumphal Entry of the King
    Did He clear the temple when He arrived in Jerusalem that afternoon? = Cursed fig tree, taught
      Mark 11:11-12, 15 = No, He returned to Bethany, He cleared the temple on Monday
    What did He do the rest of days before Passover (Thursday evening)?
      Luke 21:37-38 = Spent days teaching in temple, evenings on Mount, slept in Bethany

    What happened to Jesus between late Thursday night and by mid-afternoon on Friday?
      Mark 14:46; 15:1, 25, 33-34, 37 = Arrested (mid?), tried (6a), crucified (9a), died (3p)
    How do we know this all happened on Friday (Jewish days began at 6:00 pm)?
      Mark 15:42-43 = Needed to get Jesus' body buried before Sabbath at 6:00 pm
    What did Jesus do on Saturday while His body laid dead in the tomb? = No decay (Acts 13:37)
      1 Peter 3:18-19 = He descended into hell and proclaimed His victory - Apostles' Creed
    What happened on Sunday?
      Mark 16:1, 6 = He rose on Easter morning

Paschal Preparations (Mark 14:12)
    What Jewish festivals had Jesus come to celebrate in Jerusalem?
      Leviticus 23:5-6 = Passover (twilight, Nisan 14) & Feast of Unleavened Bread (7 days)
    What had to be done on Thursday before the Passover began at 6:00 pm?
      Mark 14:12 = Preparations had to be made for the feast
    Who did Jesus send to make the important preparations?
      Luke 22:8 = Peter and John - The others stayed with Jesus
    Paschal means Of the Passover - Pasch comes from Hebrew pesach which means Passover

The Place (Mark 14:13-16)
    The Passover meal could only be eaten inside Jerusalem or not at all
      With so many pilgrims, anyone who had an extra room had to provide it free
    Had Jesus made any arrangements to make sure they had a place? = Secret from Jews
      Matthew 26:18 = Yes, He sent Peter & John to go to a certain man
    How would Peter and John know where to find this man? = Men had leather water bags
      Mark 14:13-15 = Follow a man carrying a water jug - Only women carried jugs

    Two-story houses were only found in the affluent Upper City (upwind of city sewage)
      Second floors were large open rooms, smaller than first floor; Used for storage & guests
      Upper rooms were accessed only by outside stairs, kept main floor private
    Did Peter and John find the man and the fully furnished room just as Jesus said?
      Mark 14:16 = Yes, they found everything as He had told them

Preparing for the Passover Seder (Exodus 12)
    What was the first task in preparing for a Passover seder? = seder is Hebrew for service
      Exodus 12:15 = A ceremonial search and destroying of all yeast (leaven)
    After gathering items for the feast, what important task was done that afternoon?
      Exodus 12:3-6 = Buy and personally slaughter a year-old lamb in the temple
    Why was it important that at least ten people be present and that the lamb was properly sized?
      Exodus 12:8-10 = It all had to be eaten or destroyed, no left-overs

    Around 250,000 lambs were slaughtered in temple forecourts between 3:00 and 6:00
      Horn blast announced the start, Priests chanted Hallel (Praise God, Psalms 113-118)
      Priests caught blood from slit necks and poured at the foot of the altar
      Lambs were skinned & gutted by priests, fat & inners were burned on altar
      Rest carried home in skin and roasted over fire on pomegranate spit - head, legs, tail, ...

The Passover Seder - Before the Meal
    1. Cup of the Kiddush (separation) = Separated this meal from all other common meals
      Head of family prayed over the cup, then all drank = Red wine mixed 3:2 with water
      What was the significance of the four cups of wine scattered throughout the Passover feast?
        Exodus 6:6-7 = Four cups represented four promises - Add to board
          Sanctification = Separated from unholy world - I will bring you out
          Thanksgiving = Freed from slavery - I will rid you of their bondage
          Redemption = Atonement and blessing - I will redeem you
          Completion = I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be your God
        Fifth cup sometimes poured for Elijah (Malachi 4:5-6) - Never drank
    2. First hand washing = leader had to ceremonially wash his hands three times
    3. Parsley = Represented hyssop that smeared blood on door frames
      dipped into salt water and eaten = Salt water was tears of slaves in Egypt & Red Sea
    4. Breaking of bread = Blessings were made over three circles of unleavened bread
      Middle circle of bread was broken and a little eaten = Slaves only had broken crusts
    5. Story related = Youngest asked why this day was special, leader told whole story of Israel
      Exodus 12:26-27 = Parents are to explain the ceremony to their asking children
    6. Hallel Part 1 = Psalms 113 & 114 were sung; first verses memorized by a Jewish boy
      Leader chanted a verse and the rest replied with Hallelujah (Praise the Lord God)

The Passover Seder - The Meal
    7. Cup of Haggadah (explaining, proclaiming) = 2
    8. Second Hand Washing = Everyone would ceremonially wash their hands
    9. Grace = A blessing was said and small pieces of bread were distributed
    10. Sop = Bitter herbs were placed between bread and dipped into Charosheth and eaten
      Bitter herbs (horse radish, chicory, endive, lettuce, horehound) = Bitterness of slavery
      Charosheth (apples, dates, pomegranates, nuts, cinnamon sticks) = Clay bricks & straw
    11. Meal = The whole lamb was eaten with bread, herbs, Charosheth; left-overs destroyed
    12. Third Hand Washing
    13. Bread = Remainder of unleavened bread was eaten
    14. Cup of Thanksgiving = 3
      With prayer of thanksgiving and petition asking for return of Elijah
    15. Hallel Part 2 = Psalms 115-118 were sung
    16. Final Cup = 4
    17. The Great Hallel = Psalm 136 was sung and two short prayers were said

Jesus' Last Supper (Mark 14:17-21)
    When did Jesus and His disciples show up at the Upper Room?
      Mark 14:17 = Not till evening, before official 6:00 start time (silver trumpets blew)
    Was Jesus trying to put off what He knew would be His last meal?
      Luke 22:14-16 = No, He has eagerly looked forward to it
    Early Passovers were eaten standing as escaping slaves (Exodus 12:11)
      Changed later to reclining on couches as free men

    What inconceivable news did Jesus have during the meal? = Still worst treachery in Middle East
      Mark 14:18 = Sharing a meal was a sign of intimacy, Betrayal was unheard of
    How did Jesus indicate who this betrayer was and at what point of the Paschal Seder?
      Mark 14:19-21 = One who dips bread into the bowl with Me - During sop or meal
    What Old Testament prophesy did this fulfill?
      Psalm 41:9 = my close friend...who shared my bread, has lifted up his heel against me

The Eucharist (Mark 14:22-26)
    What did Jesus do at Point 13 of the Seder and why is it sometimes called the Eucharist?
      Mark 14:22 = He gave thanks (Eucharist - Gk for to give thanks) & gave it as His body
    What else did Jesus include in this Sacrament He was instituting?
      Mark 14:23-24 = Gave thanks and gave the cup (3rd or 4th) as His blood
    What final part of the Seder do we see?
      Mark 14:26 = They sang the Great Hallel

    What is a sacrament? (From Luther's Small Catechism with Explanation)
      A sacred act
      Instituted by God Himself
      In which there are certain visible means connected with His Word
      By which God offers, gives and seals unto us the forgiveness of sins which Christ has earned for us.

The Sacrament of the Altar (Mark 14:25)
    What are some other names we have for this sacrament?
      1 Corinthians 11:20-22 = The Lord's Supper
      1 Corinthians 10:21 = The Lord's Table
      1 Corinthians 10:16-17 = KJV calls it communion (NIV - participation)
      Acts 2:42 = Breaking of bread
      1 Corinthians 11:24 = Eucharist (gave thanks)

    Where do we get the Words of Institution that Pastor says before we share Holy Communion?
      1 Corinthians 11:23-26 = Paul's account of what happened
    Are the bread and wine changed into the body and blood of Christ?
      1 Corinthians 11:28 = No, the bread stays bread and the wine stays wine
    So why do we say the Christ's body and blood are in, with and under the bread and wine?
      Matthew 26:26-28 = This is My body ... This is My blood - Real Presence
    How does Paul describe this mystery?
      1 Corinthians 10:16 = cup is participation in the blood, bread is participation in the body

    Does it matter whether we recognize the real presence of Christ or if we feel it is just symbolic?
      1 Corinthians 11:27-29 = Whoever takes without recognizing body & blood is judged
    Besides protecting others from judgment, why do we practice closed communion?
      Romans 16:17 = Keep away from those contrary to the teachings you've learned

    Besides remembering what Jesus did, what do we look forward to when we share His Meal?
      Matthew 26:29 = That day when I drink it anew with you in My Father's Kingdom

Closing Prayer

Copyright © 1998 by Kurt Rosenhagen

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