Teacher Notes

Bible Stories for Adults

David and Jonathan

1 Samuel 14, 18-20

Welcome and Announcements
    Next Week - David Forgives Saul (1 Samuel 21-30)
    Bible Words to Remember:
      Greater love has no one than this, that he lay down his life for his friends. John 15:13

Opening Prayer

Jonathan at Gilgal (1 Samuel 14:1-23)
    Who was Jonathan?
      1 Samuel 14:49 = Saul's oldest son, prince, heir apparent
    What had Jonathan done to aggravate the Philistines?
      1 Samuel 13:3 = He attacked the Philistine outpost at Geba
    What did the Philistines do in response?
      1 Samuel 13:5 = Brought a countless army to Micmash for revenge
    How did Saul show his poor discernment at Gilgal?
      1 Samuel 13:11-12 = Offered sacrifice instead of waiting for Samuel as God commanded

    How did Jonathan show his faith at Gilgal?
      1 Samuel 14:6-7 = Nothing can hinder the Lord from saving, by many or by few
    He had not inquired of the Lord. How would he know if God was with him?
      1 Samuel 14:8-10 = ...that will be a sign to us that the Lord has given them into our hands
    What did the Philistines think when they saw Jonathan and his armor bearer?
      1 Samuel 14:11-12 = The Hebrews are crawling out of their holes
    Was Jonathan correct in trusting God for success?
      1 Samuel 14:13-14 = They killed 20 Philistines
    How did God use Jonathan's success to save Israel from this massive army?
      1 Samuel 14:15-16 = God sent earthquake & panic to P army & army melted away
    How did Saul again show his weak faith? = Do we sometimes act like we don't have time for God?
      1 Samuel 14:17-19 = Didn't inquire of God when he thought it would take too long
    Did God withdraw the support He began with Jonathan?
      1 Samuel 14:20-23 = No, caused Philistines to turn on each other, Israel pursued

Jonathan and Saul's Rash Vow (1 Samuel 14:24-45)
    What rash vow had Saul made during the heat of battle at Gilgal?
      1 Samuel 14:24 = Curse on anyone who eats before evening
    How did Saul make this vow even more rash after getting no reply from God?
      1 Samuel 14:37-39 = Whoever has sinned must die, even Jonathan
    What had Jonathan done?
      1 Samuel 14:25-27 = He ate honey
    Did Saul fulfill the promise of his rash vow? = Broke even another promise to God; weak faith
      1 Samuel 14:41-45 = Saul intended to fulfill it but was swayed by men to break promise

Jonathan's Friend David (1 Samuel 18:1-4)

    Where did David live after he killed Goliath?
      1 Samuel 18:2 = In Saul's house with Saul's family
    What did Jonathan think of this new addition to the family? = Clothes symbolized giving self
      1 Samuel 18:1, 3-4 = Loved him as himself; Gave his robe, tunic, sword, bow & belt
    What did other members of the royal family think of the new addition?
      1 Samuel 18:20 = His sister, Michal, was in love with David

Saul's Jealousy (1 Samuel 18:5-29)
    How did God bless David while he was with Saul's family?
      1 Samuel 18:5 = God gave him success in everything, Pleased everyone
    How did Saul feel about David's success?
      1 Samuel 18:6-9 = He kept a jealous eye on David
    How serious was Saul's jealousy?
      1 Samuel 18:10-11 = He tried to kill David twice by throwing spear

    Why did Saul offer his daughters to David in marriage?
      1 Samuel 18:17, 21 = So that the Philistines might pursue & kill David
    How was this repeated in Saul's response to David's excuse of unworthiness?
      1 Samuel 18:23-25 = He made David kill 100 P's, hoping the P's would kill him first
    How did David respond to Saul's price?
      1 Samuel 18:26-27 = He was pleased and brought twice as many (200)
    Did David's price of 200 Philistines please Saul?
      1 Samuel 18:28-29 = No, he saw God with David & was enemy rest of life
    Did Saul's attempt to have David fall at the hands of the Philistines ever have any success?
      1 Samuel 18:30 = No, it continued to backfire as David grew more successful

Dad Threatens Jonathan's Friend (1 Samuel 19)

    What did Jonathan do when he heard his dad wanted to kill David?
      1 Samuel 19:1-3 = Warned David and helped him hide
    How did Jonathan stand up to his dad for David?
      1 Samuel 19:4-7 = Convinced Saul that David was benefit, not detriment

    Was Saul's acceptance of David permanent?
      1 Samuel 19:8-10 = After David had another victory, Saul tried to spear him again
    How did Michal save David when she heard that her dad wanted to kill him?
      1 Samuel 19:11-17 = Helped him escape, used idol as sick David in bed
    To whom did David flee?
      1 Samuel 19:18 = To Samuel at Ramah

A Friend You Can Count On (1 Samuel 20:1-23)
    Who did David go to when Saul pursued him at Ramah? = Naioth likely a housing complex
      1 Samuel 20:1-2 = To his best friend Jonathan
    Why did David think Jonathan was ignorant of Saul's intent to kill him?
      1 Samuel 20:3 = Saul knew David was Jonathan's friend, Didn't want to upset Jonathan
    What test did David devise to prove Saul's intent to Jonathan?
      1 Samuel 20:4-7 = Watch Saul's response to David missing festival dinner

    Did Jonathan agree with this plan?
      1 Samuel 20:12-13 = Yes. He promised to let David know his safety
    How did Jonathan and David affirm their friendship at this point of crisis?
      1 Samuel 20:14-17, 23 = They made and reaffirmed oaths to each other, God as witness
    How would Jonathan get word to David without letting Saul find David?
      1 Samuel 20:19-22 = Shoot arrows, Words to retriever are code to David

The Test (1 Samuel 20:24-42)
    What happened on the first night of the festival?
      1 Samuel 20:24-26 = Nothing. Saul assumed David had become unclean
    What happened on the second night of the festival?
      1 Samuel 20:27-29 = Saul asked where David was; Jonathan gave planned answer
    How did Saul respond to Jonathan's answer?
      1 Samuel 20:30 = He got mad at Jonathan for siding with David

    Why did Saul feel that Jonathan should also want David dead?
      1 Samuel 20:31 = David threatened Jonathan's inheritance of the throne
    Was Jonathan concerned with protecting the throne?
      1 Samuel 23:15-18 = Jonathan agreed with plan of David as king

    How serious was Saul's intent to kill David?
      1 Samuel 20:32-33 = Tried to kill Jonathan for protecting David
    How did Jonathan react once he knew his father wanted to kill David?
      1 Samuel 20:34-40 = He grieved & shot arrows as he & David planned

    How upset was David that he would have to leave his friend?
      1 Samuel 20:41 = He bowed before Jonathan & cried with him
    What were their last words before David left?
      1 Samuel 20:42 = God is witness to our sworn friendship

What is a Friend? (John 15:13-17)
    As a friend, what times do you love?
      Proverbs 17:17 = A friend loves at all times
    As a friend, how much do you love?
      1 Samuel 18:1 = As yourself
    As a friend, how close do you get?
      Proverbs 18:24 = Closer than a brother

    What is the greatest way a friend can show his love?
      John 15:13 = that he lay down his life for his friends
    How do we show that we are Jesus' friends?
      John 15:14 = You are my friends if you do what I command
    What does Jesus command?
      John 15:17 = This is my command: Love each other

    How does Jesus show that He has called us friends?
      John 15:15 = I have told you everything My Father has revealed
    Why did Jesus choose us?
      John 15:16 = To go and bear fruit to our friends - fruit that will last

Closing Prayer

Copyright © 1997 by Kurt Rosenhagen

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